Shampoos are typically viscous liquids, either clear or opaque (pearlised), containing 20–40% solids, adjusted to approximately pH 5.5. Most, but not all, have viscosities in the ratio of 500–1500 centipoise. A hair shampoo may be defined as a detergent specifically formulated for the washing of hair, and packaged in a user-convenient form. Typically, a shampoo must clean well, rinse easily, impart gloss to the hair, minimise tangle and not damage the hair structure, or the scalp or the eyes.
Shampoos are manufactured by simple slow blending in a stirred vessel. The vessel may be jacketed for heating. The shampoo manufacturing plant vessels are normally closed type and subjected to vacuum to avoid excessive foaming when foaming agent is added. For best results contra type rotating stirrer is best used for shampoo manufacturing.
Ingredients are weighed or metered incrementally into the mixing vessel, with thorough mixing between each addition. A moderate amount of heat is used to reduce the viscosity and so facilitate ease of mixing.
Some pearlising agents are waxy solids at ambient temperature and require melting in a premixing vessels before use. Demineralised water is most commonly used in order to minimise contamination of the product. No further processing is required after blending, & perfuming and the product may be packed off directly from the mixing vessel. Or may be transferred to storage vessels from where they are transferred to the filling machines.
Many companies make the bases for the shampoos where they do all the premxing of surfactants, sles, other ingredients and sell the same to major industries These industries are mainly called the formulators and in this second level processing will involve only the addition of water, colour and fragrance. In case of ayurvedic or herbal shampoos, they add their propriety formulae ingredients themselves so that no one knows the exact nature of ingredients and its details. VESSELS REQUIRED FOR A SHAMPOO PLANT
Manufacturing vessel is cylindrical vessels with dished bottom vessels. Top of the vessel is also dished end welded. Agitator assembly in the manufacturing vessel., slow speed Anchor agitator is provided in the manufacturing vessel. However for best results contra rotating or semi contra rotating agitators are normally preferred by most of the manufacturers for excellent quality of the shampoo produced. CIP turbo disk is provided at the top of the vessel for cleaning. Suitable nozzles, manholes, valves etc are provided on the vessel. Vessel can also be provided with jacket which can be used for both heating and cooling if required by the client. Manufacturing vessel can be subjected to full vacuum.
Premixing vessel is cylindrical vessels with dished bottom vessels. Top of the vessel is also dished end welded or can be provided with loose lid too. Agitator assembly in the premix vessel. Is high speed cowl/ saw cutter type agitator. In some cases high speed homogenizer are also provided. CIP turbo disk is provided at the top of the vessel for cleaning. Suitable nozzles, manholes, valves etc are provided on the vessel. Vessel is provided with jacket for heating. Jacket can be steam heated or electrically heated as per client's requirement. Suitable insulation and cladding is provided on the jacket. There is no need for any vacuum in this vessel. Normally the capacity of this vessel is 60 % the capcity of the main manufacturing vessel. Premix vessels can be 1 no or 2 nos as per the clients requirements and formulae of the shampoo.
Storage vessel is simple vessel used to store shampoos. It is cylindrical type of vessel with dished bottom, loose top lid. Bottom valve is provided with din fittings to facilitate the pipeline connection. Its capacity is the same as the manufacturing vessel. Normally storage tanks are more in number so that different types of shampoos can be manufactured and stored. Filling is then done as per the requirement & market demands.
In manufacturing of shampoos the SLES/ surfactants form a major ingredients. Hence it has to be stored in large quantities. Also if drums of 200 kgs are bought it will turn expensive for the manufacturers. Hence most of the manufacturers but one entire tanker of surfactants and store the same. Normally one weeks/ months usage of surfactants are normally kept stored to ensure continous production. Hence the capacity of this storage tank will be taking into consideration of the storage requirements of the client. This tanks are vertical tanks with big heights with flat bottom. Top is also closed with suitable manhole and nozzles for effective loading into the vessel through pumps. Similarly outlet is also provided at the bottom where the surfactants are tansfered from the storage vessel into the manufacturing vessel or premix vessel through pumps.
Transfer pumps are used to transfer material from premix vessel to the manufacturing vessel only if the mfg vessel is not under vacuum. If it is under vacuum the premix is automatically transferred into the main vessel through vacuum. Transfer pumps are required for the following Transfering surfactants to premix / main vessel From main vessel to storage vessels From storage vessel to filling machine.
Interconnecting pipeline is provided for the plant as per the layout of the clients room size. All pipelines are electropolished from inside and outside. All joints are DIN standards quick openable types. Pipelines are used for transferring the surfactants from storage tank to premix vessels, from premix vessels to manufacturing vessels and from mfg vessels to storage vessel and from storage to filling line.
All vessels have CIP/ SIP nozzles & conical filters are provided at the discharge of the vessels. Entire plant is fully automatic and interconnected by suitable pipeline & requires only one operator for all the operations. Suitable working platform is provided for cleaning and maintainence. An integrated control panel fully automatic controlled by a PLC is provided. (Optional)
Control panel is provided with all the starters, overload relays, push buttons, lamps, ckt breakers etc. all hardware required for automatic operation of the shampoo mfg plant is provided in the control panel. Various automation is available as per clients requirements to name a few: